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제작위원회는 악의 축인가
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[책소개]

애니메이션 업계는 크리에이터만의 영역이 아니다
애니메이션의 탄생에 기여하기 위해서는 반드시 크리에이터여야 할 필요가 없음은 ㅁㅅㄴ에서
2018년에 발간해 큰 호응을 얻은 ‘애니메이션 제작 독본’을 읽으셨다면 아시리라 생각한다. ‘애니메
이션 제작 독본’은 단독으로 일하는 여러 크리에이터를 이으며 스케줄을 조율하고 수많은 실무를 담
당하는 제작진행(制作進行)이라는 직종의 입장에서 본 애니메이션 제작 현장을 조망했다. 그리고 이
제, 현장직과는 다른 위치에서 업계를 조망하는 시각을 접해 보도록 하자.


제작(製作)의 핵심, 제작위원회
‘애니메이션 제작 독본’에서 우리는 제작(製作)과 제작(制作)이 있음을 배웠다. 즉 애니메이션 한
편을 만드는 데에는 먼저 크리에이터들이 있고, 이들을 조직하여 실질적으로 작품을 만드는 제작(制
作), 그리고 전반적인 프로듀싱에 해당하는 제작(製作) 과정을 거치는 것이다. 앞서의 도서가 제작
과정의 일선 실무진인 제작진행의 시각으로 본 애니메이션의 창조 과정이라면, 이 책은 보다 거시적
인, 애니메이션의 기획과 상업적 운용에 해당하는 제작(製作)을 설명한다. 그렇다면 제작(製作)의 핵
심은 무엇일까? 바로 제작위원회다.


제작위원회는 뜨거운 감자
90년대 초 제작위원회 시스템이 애니메이션 업계에 도입되었고, 「신세기 에반게리온」의 대성공을
거쳐 지금은 거의 모든 애니메이션이 제작위원회 시스템으로 만들어진다. 도입 초반만 해도 ‘획기적
인 시스템’으로 찬사를 들었던 제작위원회지만, 지금은 제작위원회 시스템이 갖는 한계도 여럿 드러
났고, 일부에서는 일본 애니메이션 업계가 변화를 거부하고 지체되는 원인과 애니메이션 현장 블랙
기업화의 원인을 제작위원회에서 찾기도 한다. 말 그대로 ‘악의 축’으로 보는 시각도 있을 정도다.


제작위원회에 대한 운영진의 시각은 이렇다
이 책의 저자인 마스다 히로미치는 기획 분야의 베테랑이다. 원래 애니메이션과는 무관한 음반 업
계에서 경력을 시작하여 애니메이션 분야와의 협업을 하며 노하우를 쌓고, 유명 애니메이션 제작사
의 대표이사를 역임했다. 즉, ‘비 크리에이터 출신 업계 경력자’인 셈이다. 그렇기에 크리에이터와는
다른 시각, 즉 ‘비즈니스’로서 애니메이션을 바라보는 시각을 제공한다. 그렇기에 저자는 제작위원회
를 부정적으로만 바라보지는 않는다. 애니메이션 제작을 위해 수행해야 하는 제작비 조달의 용이성,
수많은 작품을 공급할 수 있는 능력의 확보 측면에서 제작위원회 방식의 불가피함을 역설한다.
물론 그 과정에서 일어나는 폐해에 눈을 돌리지 않는다. 현재 애니메이터가 박봉에 시달린다는 점
도 인정한다. 하지만 저자는 업계 전반의 평균 급료가 낮은 이유가 ‘동화 담당’의 지나친 저임금이
원인임을 지적하며, 해당 분야의 종사자들이 저임금에 시달리게 된 근본적인 이유-이른바 업계의 관
행-를 분석하고, 이는 제작위원회 체제의 구조적 문제가 아니라 애초에 업계에서 크리에이터에 대해
제대로 대우해 오지 않았음을 이야기한다. 물론, 저자의 시각에 동의하지 않는 독자라면 저자의 포
지션(경영진)에서 제작위원회를 바라보는 관점을 확인하고, 제작위원회를 옹호하는 저자의 입장에 대
한 비판을 가할 수도 있을 것이다. 저자 마스다 히로미치 역시도 현 일본의 시스템상 제작위원회의
필요성을 인정하는 한편으로 작품을 만드는 스튜디오가 더욱 힘을 가져야 하고, 최종적으로는 스튜
디오들이 비즈니스적 역량을 길러 제작위원회와 스튜디오가 분리되지 않고 하나가 되어야 바람직하
다는 의견을 제시한다.


비즈니스 전문가로 업계 입성을 바라는 사람을 위하여
애니메이션 업계를 꿈꾸는 자들을 위한 서적들은 대부분 크리에이티브 분야에 치우쳐 있다. 하지
만 음악 업계가 가수와 작사가, 작곡자들로만 굴러가는 것이 아니라 이를 산업으로 승화시키기 위한
비창작 분야들이 존재하는 것과 마찬가지로, 애니메이션 역시 비 크리에이티브 영역, 즉 비즈니스
영역이 존재한다. 이 책은 비즈니스로서의 애니메이션 제작 과정에 대한 지침서이다. 애니메이션이
유통되는 다양한 채널 및 이에서 파생되는 하위 산업 분야들, 그리고 각 사업 분야들의 현황 및 창
작과 비창작 계열을 막라한 업계의 다양한 직종을 소개하며 이들이 어떤 일을 하고 어떤 역량이 필
요한지를 설명한다. 만약 당신이 크리에이터가 아니며 애니메이션 업계에서 일하고 싶은 소망을 가
졌다면, 이 책은 훌륭한 길잡이가 될 것이다.



[작가 소개]
후쿠하라 요시타다

1980년 가나가와 현에서 태어났다. 와세다대 교육학부를 졸업하고 디지털 헐리우드 대학 대학원
디지털 콘텐츠 연구 과정을 수료하였으며 게이오기주쿠 대학원 미디어 디자인 연구과 박사 과정
에 입학 예정이다. 대학 재학 중 가수 가와시마 아이의 길거리 라이브를 본 일을 계기로 음악 업계
에 관심을 가졌다. 가와시마의 매니저를 맡아 싱글 음반 「내일로의 문」이 90만 장을 넘는 메가 히
트를 기록했다. 그 뒤 애니메이션 스튜디오 야오요로즈를 설립하고 「직구표제 로봇 아니메」와 「미나
라이 디바」,「 찾아보자! 부활동」 등의 프로듀싱을 맡았으며, 그 중 「케모노 프렌즈」가 엄청난 히트
를 기록했다. 음악 업계를 거쳐 애니메이션의 기획 및 프로듀스, 실질적인 제작까지 관여하며 수많
은 경험을 쌓았고, 전세계에 통할 수 있는 신세대 프로듀서 양성을 목표로 활동하고 있다.


- 작가의 말 -
제가 대학을 졸업하고 취직한 1979년은 「기동전사 건담」 「도라에몽」과 같은 역사적인 작품이 등
장한 해였지만, 그 무렵은 일반 학생이 취업할 곳으로 애니메이션 업계를 떠올리지 못하던 시대였습
니다(물론 애니메이터 전문직을 꿈꾸는 사람에게는 매력적인 직장이었겠지요).
애니메이션을 전혀 염두에 두지 않았던 저는 ‘키티 레코드’라는 레코드 회사에 들어갔습니다. 그
때 그곳에서 미디어믹스의 전신이 되는 영화를 다수 제작했다는 사실에 놀랐습니다. 그런 상황에 기
가 죽은 저는 배속된 프로덕션 부문에서 반년 후에 방영을 앞둔「 베르사유의 장미」 애니메이션 시
리즈의 주제가를부르는 신인, 스즈키 히로코의 매니저를 담당하게 되었습니다. 하지만 그때까지도
제가 애니메이션과 인연을 맺게 될 줄은 꿈에도 생각하지 못했었습니다.
그런데 입사 2년차에 운명을 바꾸는 사건이 일어났습니다. 일본 애니메이션 역사에서도 그다지 전
례가 없는 일이겠지만, 제가 일하는 레코드 회사가 독자적으로 애니메이션을 제작하게 된 것입니다.
그것이 바로 「시끌별 녀석들」이었습니다.
“왜 레코드 회사가 애니메이션을 만들어?”라고 생각한 사람은 비단 저뿐만이 아니었을 겁니다. 지
금이야 흔하지만, 당시에는 “최신 유행을 좇는 레코드 회사가 왜 어린이용 애니메이션을 만들지?(우
주전함 야마토 등의 애니메이션 사정에 둔했기에)”라는 감각이었습니다. 이 사건이 앞으로 제 인생
을 야금야금 침식할 줄이야…….
(중략)
애니메이션도 그 당시에 대졸자들이 취직하고 싶어하는 분야가 아니었습니다. 그 증거로 현재 50
대~60대인 애니메이션 스튜디오 경영자 중에 프로듀서와 감독, 애니메이터 출신을 제외하면 처음부
터 애니메이션 업계에 발을 들인 사람은 거의 없습니다. 지브리의 스즈키 도시오 씨도 처음에는 잡
지 편집자였습니다. 설마 애니메이션 일을 하게 될 줄 꿈에도 몰랐던 사람들이 우여곡절 끝에 애니
메이션을 만나 그 매력에 휘둘리다가 정신을 차려보니 대표까지 되어 있었다는 예가 대부분입니다.
대졸이 취직할 회사로 애니메이션 스튜디오를 인식하게 된 것은 최근 십수 년 전부터일까요? 그
로부터 단기간에 고학력 취준생이 진지하게 취직을 고려하는 대상으로 보게 되었으니 감개무량할 따
름입니다. 그렇지만 학생의 부모에게는 애니메이션 업계의 인지도가 여전히 낮은 실정입니다. 하지
만 이는 아직 애니메이션 업계에 취직의 기회가 있음을 의미합니다. 미국에서는 하버드 경영학과 졸
업생이 몰려드는 업계는 그때가 절정기고, 점점 내리막을 타게 된다는 우스갯소리가 있는데 일본에
서는 동경대 졸업생이 그러할 것입니다. 부모가 학생에게 권하는 곳은 그런 업계지만, 애니메이션은
아직 그런 단계가 아닙니다. 학생뿐만이 아니라 타 업종에서 이직하는 사람에게도 아직 기회가 남아
있습니다. 본서는 그러한 애니메이션 업계에 흥미가 있는 사람들을 위한 책입니다.
애니메이션 산업계가 원하는 인재는 애니메이터와 같은 크리에이터뿐만이 아닙니다. 프로듀서를
비롯한 비즈니스 인재도 원합니다. 콘텐츠 제작에서 중요한 일은 부가가치가 높은(창조성이 높은) 직
종입니다. 영화라면 각본(오리지널, 각색), 연출, 배우, 애니메이션이라면 원작, 각본, 연출, 캐릭터
디자인, 그림 콘티, 원화 같은 일이지만 프로듀서는 업무 자체가 예술입니다. 재능 넘치는 감독이나
각본가, 애니메이터로 팀을 편성하여 작품을 만드는 사람이 프로듀서이므로 어떻게 보면 제일 크리
에이티브한 직업인지도 모릅니다. 물론 프로듀서뿐만 아니라 저작권이나 해외(어학) 같은 전문성이
높은 직종도 인재를 필요로 합니다. 가령 처음부터 희망하는 회사에 입사하지 못했어도 의지만 있으
면 언젠가는 하고 싶었던 일을 만날 겁니다. 입구가 다르다고 포기하지 말고 노력했으면 합니다.
마지막으로 이 책을 출판하는 데 있어서 많은 데이터를 제공해 주신 일본애니메이션협회와 스태
프 여러분, 분량 관계로 인용처를 밝히지 못한 관계자와 수많은 저작의 저자, 인터넷 기사에 감사합
니다. 이 책을 출판해 주신 세이카이샤, 마루모 토모하루 담당자님께도 깊이 감사드립니다.
예년보다 더 꽃가루로 고생한 봄날에. 마스다 히로미치.



[목차]

들어가며 ···························································································································· 3
계속해서 성장하는 애니메이션 산업 ··············································································· 4
4차 애니메이션 열풍이 찾아온다? ··················································································· 4
성인이 애니메이션을 보는 나라는 오직 일본뿐 ····························································· 5
정말 ‘애니메이션 업계는 블랙’일까? ··············································································· 6
애니메이션 비즈니스의 전체를 알려면 ············································································ 6
Q1. 애니메이션 비즈니스는 성장하고 있는가? ·································· 13
장르의 성쇠가 명확해진 2017년 ·············································································· 18
TV TV 애니메이션이 주류인 일본 ·············································································· 21
일본은 성인이 애니메이션을 보는 나라 ······························································· 22
애니메이션 버블과 붕괴 ························································································· 22
전대미문의 역전 현상 ···························································································· 23
성인 애니메이션 시장은 일본의 독무대 ······························································· 25
영화
극장 애니메이션에서 출발한 일본 애니메이션 ···················································· 27
지브리가 떠난 애니메이션 영화의 미래는? ························································· 28
어린이·가족 애니메이션 영화에서도 지브리가 아닌 제3세력 ···························· 29
2012년부터 압도하기 시작한 제3세력의 흐름 ···················································· 30
계속해서 진화하는 일본 극장 애니메이션 ··························································· 32
비디오
하이 리스크 하이 리턴 머천다이징 비즈니스 ····················································· 35
애니메이션 비즈니스 모델을 바꾼 비디오의 등장 ·············································· 36
역사적 역할을 끝마치려 하는 비디오 ·································································· 37
애니메이션의 새로운 비즈니스 모델 ···································································· 38
스트리밍
미래 영상유통 매출의 중심 ··················································································· 40
14년 사이에 239배 ································································································· 41
차세대 영상의 주역은 누가 될 것인가? ······························································ 43
패왕은 하류에서 상류로 거슬러 올라간다 ··························································· 44
상품화
주력은 어린이·가족 애니메이션 ············································································ 46
기로에 선 캐릭터 비즈니스 ··················································································· 46
성인이 캐릭터 상품을 원하다 ··············································································· 48
음악
역사의 흐름에 역진하는 애니메이션 음악 시장 ·················································· 49
불우한 처지에서 시작한 일본 애니메이션 음악 ·················································· 50
애니메이션과 음악 산업의 만남 ············································································ 51
음악 제작비를 설정하지 않는 TV애니메이션의 미스터리 ································· 52
해외
거대한 위장으로 일본 애니메이션을 소비하는 중국과 한국 ····························· 54
포켓몬 열풍으로 팔리는 일본 애니메이션 ··························································· 56
포켓몬 환상이 사라지고 바닥으로 ········································································ 58
‘사재기’로 유지된 해외 시장 ················································································· 59
일본 애니메이션이 해외에서 팔리는 세 가지 이유 ············································ 60
유흥
세계에서 유일한 도박과 애니메이션의 관계성 ···················································· 63
공연
성장이 두드러지는 새로운 시장 ············································································ 65
라이브 행사가 인기 있는 이유 ············································································· 66
소셜게임
소셜 게임이 일본 애니메이션의 미래를 연다? ··················································· 67
Q2. 애니메이션 산업은 계속 성장할까? ············································· 69
총 제작 분수는 늘고 있다 ····················································································· 70
허덕이는 애니메이션 제작 현장 ············································································ 71
실제로 제작 현장은 어떤 상황인가? ···································································· 71
애니메이션이 점점 짧아진다? ··············································································· 73
환상의 4차 에니메이션 붐? ·················································································· 75
애니메이션 비즈니스가 확대하는 반면, 늘지 않는 애니메이션 제작 ················· 77
TV애니메이션 제작 분수가 늘지 않는 이유 ······················································· 78
애니메이션 산업 시장과 애니메이션 제작(制作) 시장 ········································ 79
Q3. 애니메이션은 어떻게 제작되는가? ··············································· 83
애니메이션 제작 구조 ······························································································· 84
제작(制作)과 제작(製作) ···························································································· 85
제작위원회 방식이란 무엇인가 ················································································· 86
제작(製作)이란 작품을 경영하는 것 ········································································ 87
애니메이션 제작 시뮬레이션
1. 프로젝트 기획 입안 ··························································································· 89
2. 기획 개발 및 조정 ····························································································· 91
3. 제작위원회 출범 ································································································ 94
4. 제작(制作) ··········································································································· 96
5. 완성 및 납품 ······································································································ 97
6. 홍보와 마케팅 ···································································································· 98
7. 작품 운용과 비용의 회수 ················································································· 99
8. 수익 분배 ··········································································································· 100
작품이 중심이 되는 제작(制作) ················································································ 101
한 회사가 제작(制作)과 제작(製作), 유통을 모두 담당하는 미국 ························ 102
일본의 종합 미디어&엔터테인먼트 기업 ································································· 103
Q4. 모든 원흉은 제작위원회? ···························································· 105
제작위원회 방식은 일본의 특징 ··············································································· 106
왜 제작위원회가 생겼는가? ······················································································ 106
제작위원회의 원형은 가도카와 영화 ······································································· 107
왜 제작위원회가 대세가 되었는가? ········································································· 108
before 제작위원회, after 제작위원회 ···································································· 109
‘제작위원회 블랙설’은 정말일까? ············································································ 110
제작위원회 방식으로 제작비는 증가하고 있다 ······················································· 112
애니메이터에게는 환원되지 않는다 ········································································· 113
스트리밍이 제작위원회 시스템을 위협한다? ·························································· 114
Q5. 애니메이터는 박봉인가? ······························································ 117
‘연봉 110만엔’으로 알려진 애니메이션 업계 ························································· 118
애니메이션 제작직의 급여는 정말 적을까? ···························································· 119
애니메이션 제작직은 왜 평균 급여가 낮은가? ······················································ 121
‘블랙설’의 뿌리는 동화에 있다 ················································································ 121
동화 담당직의 탄생 ··································································································· 123
애니메이터가 프피랜서로 ·························································································· 124
1980년대의 윈화와 동화 ··························································································· 126
1장에 200엔이 된 이유 ···························································································· 127
업계 내에서 제기되지 않는 동화 담당의 보수 문제 ············································· 127
유일하게 디지털화되지 않은 작화 작업 ·································································· 128
제작 측과 애니메이터의 정서적 관계성 ·································································· 129
애니메이션 업계는 큰 가족 ······················································································ 130
미국처럼 엄격한 관계를 원하는가? ········································································· 131
애니메이터의 실제 노동 시간은 짧다? ··································································· 134
무책임한 매스컴의 ‘블랙’ 발언 ················································································ 135
‘애니메이션 공동화론’이란? ····················································································· 137
애니메이션 제작 기술이 유출되는가? ····································································· 137
젊은 인재가 자라는 애니메이션 업계 ····································································· 138
스튜디오가 탄탄한 애니메이션 제작 현장 ······························································ 140
Q6. 애니메이션과 관련된 직종들은? ················································· 143
제작(制作)
애니메이션 스튜디오(비전문직) ················································································ 145
일반직 계열 ············································································································· 147
제작/프로듀서 계열 ································································································ 147
각본 계열 ················································································································ 149
연출 계열 ················································································································ 150
애니메이션 스튜디오(전문직) ···················································································· 151
작화 계열 ················································································································ 152
색채 계열 ················································································································ 153
미술 계열 ················································································································ 154
CG 계열 ··················································································································· 156
촬영 계열 ················································································································ 158
애니메이션 스튜디오 외 ···························································································· 159
편집 계열 ················································································································ 160
음향 계열 ················································································································ 161
음악 계열 ················································································································ 162
성우 ····························································································································· 163
제작(製作) 및 유통
애니메이션 계통 제작(製作)회사 ·············································································· 165
전문직 계열 ················································································································ 166
제작진행 계열 ············································································································ 167
프로듀서 계열 ············································································································ 167
일반직 계열 ················································································································ 168
유통계 프로듀스 회사 ······························································································· 171
영화사 계열 ·············································································································· 172
방송국 및 광고회사 계열 ·························································································· 173
비디오 및 레코드 회사 ····························································································· 174
스트리밍 회사 계열 ··································································································· 174
출판사 계열 ················································································································ 175
게임 계열 ···················································································································· 176
완구‧물류 계열 ··········································································································· 177
유흥 계열 ···················································································································· 177
해외 판매 계열 ·········································································································· 178
애니메이션 계열 ········································································································· 179
마치며 ······················································································································· 183